Could authoritarian governments gain power over the Web if the U.S. steps out of its role in the Internet domain name system?
That’s been a touchy question for the past four months, since the National Telecommunications and Information Administration announced it wanted to “transition key Internet domain name functions to the global multistakeholder community.”
In other words, the Commerce Department agency wants to get out of the business of administering some functions of the domain name system, a task that it contracted away to a nonprofit international group in 1998. The NTIA has a stewardship and checking role.
Republicans lawmakers have raised concerns about giving up the United States’ formal role, highlighting possible inference by authoritarian governments that want to use their “stakeholder” status to control the Internet beyond their borders.
“Do we think that China, that Russia, that Iran, who . . . have a say in the core functions of the Internet have the same concern for the freedom of speech that we Americans do?” asked Wisconsin Republican Sean P. Duffy in offering a House floor amendment last month to slow down the process.
Members have made multiple legislative bids to step into the matter, from backing committee reports that express concern to introducing bills to block the transfer.
For example, the House Energy and Commerce Committee approved a bill by Illinois Republican John Shimkus that would prevent the agency from acting until the Government Accountability Office reports to Congress within a year after any transition plan is proposed. Duffy introduced a bill that would block the agency from moving out of its current role altogether.
Amendments by Duffy and Shimkus were also adopted for the fiscal 2015 Commerce-Justice-Science spending bill and the annual defense policy bill, respectively. And both the committee reports associated with the House and Senate Commerce-Justice-Science spending bills for fiscal 2015 — which would fund the NTIA — say those panels are concerned about the proposal.
For years, the agency has contracted with the private, nonprofit group Internet Corporation for Assigned Names to carry out functions such as those related to implementing updates to what amounts to the Internet’s address book.
The agency’s current contract expires in September 2015, and the NTIA this spring called on ICANN to bring various interests together to come up with a transition plan to create international supervision. ICANN has matured and international support for its type of model keeps growing, the NTIA argues. What won’t be accepted is a proposal that would replace the NTIA’s role with another government or intergovernmental organization such as the United Nations, U.S. officials say.
That doesn’t satisfy some lawmakers. “Once NTIA gives up its current role, who will fill the void?” asked Energy and Commerce Communications and Technology Subcommittee Chairman Greg Walden, R-Ore., at a hearing this spring. “What assurance do Internet users have that such a change will not lead to foreign government mischief?”
It’s very “murky out there” in terms of how this might end, said Sen. John Thune, R-S.D., the top Republican on the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation panel at a nominations hearing last week.
Shimkus sees that murkiness in the definition of multistakeholder.
“Define for me multistakeholder,” Shimkus said in an interview. Industry and other countries say it’s them, he said.
Vice President Joe Biden waits to conduct a mock swearing-in ceremony with Sen. Brian Schatz, D-Hawaii, in the Capitol's Old Senate Chamber, December 2, 2014. Schatz was sworn in to serve the remainder of his term since he was appointed to the seat after Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, passed away.