Talks led by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the AFL-CIO over a new guest-worker program for lower-skilled immigrants are stalled, prompting members of the bipartisan group of eight senators to get personally involved to try to nudge the negotiations toward a resolution.
Business and labor groups have been meeting for weeks in an attempt to put together a system that would allow employers to find foreign labor when American workers are not available and that would allow foreign workers into the country. The idea is to create a new “W” visa category for lower-skilled guest workers. No such visas exists right now, leaving a vacuum that undocumented workers have been filling.
But the two sides have so far been unable to resolve their differences on a variety of points, chief among them the questions of how many visas would be awarded and what kind of workers would be eligible.
A union proposal obtained by CQ Roll Call includes language that would make occupations covered by the Davis-Bacon Act ineligible for the new program. That means that building contractors working under federal contracts would not be able to hire foreign workers under the program.
The Davis-Bacon law, which sets wage rates for contractors, has been unpopular with conservatives, and it’s unlikely that congressional Republicans would agree to those conditions, making it more difficult to reach a consensus. A chamber spokeswoman said that the business group would not agree to the provision.
The question of guest workers has been controversial in the past and was one of the main sticking points that sunk the last immigration overhaul effort, in 2007. This year, Sen. Charles E. Schumer, D-N.Y., a member of the bipartisan working group, said he preferred to outsource those talks to the business and labor representatives, freeing up time for senators to discuss other aspects of immigration policy.
The chamber and the AFL-CIO put out a joint statement last month outlining the points on which they had reached agreement. The statement was silent on some of the most difficult questions, and the two sides have yet to resolve those issues.
Although sources on both sides say the talks are ongoing, the negotiators have come to the conclusion that they will not have a fully formed program to present to the Senate group, which hopes to unveil its immigration bill in April.
“The idea that we were going to negotiate a final bill and present it as a baked cake was a little bit unrealistic,” said Randel K. Johnson, the chamber’s senior vice president for labor and immigration.
The sticking points remain the same as they’ve always been. One of the main areas of disagreement concerns how many new visas should be issued. The chamber, while it would prefer an uncapped program, agreed to set the ceiling at 400,000 visas per year, Johnson said. Labor, in order to protect American workers from competition, wanted an annual cap of about 10,000. That number would ebb and flow based on economic conditions.
Business groups insist that employers should be able to hire foreign workers once they’ve exhausted all possibilities of finding American workers. The number of guest workers allowed into the country should be determined by employer demand, they say, rather than by government officials.
Vice President Joe Biden waits to conduct a mock swearing-in ceremony with Sen. Brian Schatz, D-Hawaii, in the Capitol's Old Senate Chamber, December 2, 2014. Schatz was sworn in to serve the remainder of his term since he was appointed to the seat after Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, passed away.