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The Face of Battle

Courtesy Brian Ireley/Smithsonian Institution
"Experience Civil War Photography: From the Home Front to the Battlefront" collects photographs, video and artifacts from early American wartime experience, capturing a historical moment through yesteryear's photojournalism.

The new exhibition at the Smithsonian Castle proves that no matter how far from us a war resides in time or space, photography can bring us closer to the battlefield. 

"Experience Civil War Photography: From the Home Front to the Battlefront" transports visitors back in time 150 years. The collection of photographs, video and artifacts illustrates the American wartime experience and also the difficult role a national museum plays in a country fractured by war.

Michelle Delaney, a curator at the Smithsonian, described the exhibit as capturing a unique historical moment defined by the explosion of photojournalism.

The Smithsonian Castle opened in 1855, followed closely by the outbreak of war in 1861. It continued to operate throughout the war, despite being located near the epicenter of the country's conflict. 

Museum Secretary Joseph Henry attempted to maintain neutrality during the Civil War. For the duration, the national flag did not fly in front of the museum. Nor did Henry permit abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass to deliver a lecture at the Smithsonian amphitheater, though President Abraham Lincoln was present at early lectures. 

Today, the windows of the Smithsonian Castle, filled in with images of battlefields, keep visitors to the museum immersed in the 19th century. The diary of Secretary Henry's daughter lies open to an entry about life in D.C. after Lincoln's assassination, and albums of civil war photographs adorn the displays.

Although photography was not a novel invention by the 1860s, new technologies in the middle of the century allowed the development of modern photojournalism and the mass distribution of photos for the first time. 

During the war, photographers traveled with soldiers, dodging bullets while racing to develop their prints in the field. Visitors to the exhibit will learn about the techniques of printing photos from glass plate negatives and the immediate effect this new technology had on the American public. 

"It was the first time people were seeing graphic depictions of real dead," Delaney pointed out. Another new technology was also amplifying the reality of war for the American citizenry: the emergence of 3-D images in an early incarnation of the technology called stereoscopic photography. 

The stereoscope transformed the way the country witnessed war. Today, the technique continues to attract record theater audiences for its ability to engulf viewers in cinematic action. In the 19th century, the technology achieved the same effect, only in sitting rooms instead of cineplexes. 

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