Watching the procedural peregrinations of the balanced budget constitutional amendment in the House was enough to make anyone a bit dizzy and wobbly.
The off-balancing act at least began on a level legislative plane. House Republican leaders pledged in their September 2010 campaign manifesto that, if returned to the majority, they would put government on “a path to balance the budget and pay down the debt.” That pledge was advanced by the debt limit deal in August that made a down payment on debt reduction by imposing statutory spending caps and required both chambers to vote on a balanced budget amendment.
Two versions of a balanced budget amendment were introduced on the opening day of this Congress by Rep. Bob Goodlatte (R-Va.). Designated as House Joint Resolution 1 and 2, they attracted 133 and 242 co-sponsors, respectively.
The main difference between the two was that H.J.Res. 1 required a balanced budget, unless waived by a three-fifths vote of each chamber, with spending not to exceed 20 percent of economic output (gross domestic product), unless waived by a two-thirds vote. Three-fifths votes would be required to increase taxes and to raise the debt ceiling. The more popular version, H.J.Res. 2, was nearly identical except only a majority vote would be required to raise taxes.
In June, the House Judiciary Committee reported H.J.Res. 1 with an amendment. The amended version limited outlays to 18 percent of GDP unless waived by a two-thirds vote and retained the three-fifths votes to waive the balanced budget requirement and to increase the debt limit. However, the amendment increased the threshold for raising taxes from a three-fifths to a two-thirds vote.
Before the balanced budget amendment was ready for the House floor, it underwent vetting in the GOP caucus, through a working group headed by Majority Whip Kevin McCarthy (Calif.) and by use of a multiple-choice survey.
The central question facing Republicans was whether they wanted a campaign issue or a constitutional amendment. The supermajority threshold to raise taxes was a major sticking point with otherwise sympathetic Democrats in the House. And Democratic votes would be needed to achieve the two-thirds threshold for constitutional amendments.
The upshot of these intense, intraparty deliberations was strong support for a compromise that required only a majority vote to raise taxes. The compromise also dropped the GDP-geared spending cap.
Notwithstanding majority support in the Republican Conference, 31 conservative organizations, including the Club for Growth, Americans for Tax Reform and various tea party affiliates, expressed opposition to the compromise in a Nov. 9 letter to Speaker John Boehner (R-Ohio).
This undercurrent of conservative opposition posed a serious challenge to the leadership: How do you pass the amendment given the multiplicity of alternatives which, if offered as substitutes, would require only a majority vote for adoption as amendments? (The two-thirds vote requirement for constitutional amendments applies only to final passage.)
The agreed-upon solution was to bring up the package under suspension of the rules — a process usually reserved for noncontroversial matters. Bills considered under suspension are debatable for 40 minutes, are not amendable and require a two-thirds vote for passage. Even the usual minority-party motion to recommit with instructions (offer a final amendment) is prohibited under suspension.
Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand, D-N.Y., speaks with reporters following a vote in the Senate. Gillibrand’s proposal to remove military commanders from the process of reviewing sexual-assault cases was left out of the bicameral deal on the defense authorization bill, but the senator is pushing for a vote on her plan soon.
Each year since 1990, CQ Roll Call has reviewed the financial disclosures of all 541 senators, representatives and delegates to determine the 50 richest members of Congress. This year's report, derived from forms covering the calendar year 2012, shows it took a net worth of $6.67 million to crack the exclusive club.