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The Man Who Broke the Filibuster

American politics is replete with practitioners who preach honest politics while failing to practice it.

Thomas Brackett Reed of Maine, late-19th-century Speaker and the subject of James Grant’s winning new biography, “Mr. Speaker! The Life and Times of Thomas B. Reed,” was the opposite.

He was a man who practiced honest politics but never preached it. “Pure in his political conduct,” Grant writes, “he had no interest in instructing the impure.” And in the end, he walked away from power rather than practice a style of politics he found personally distasteful and considered dangerous to American ideals.

But before that, he was, in the words of the book’s second subtitle, “the man who broke the filibuster.”

In modern times, the filibuster is an exclusively Senate phenomenon. But in the 19th century, the House was in some ways even more unruly than the Senate. Those seeking to block action had to do nothing more than refuse to acknowledge their presence, thereby depriving the body of a quorum and making it impossible to conduct any legislative business.

Grant does a splendid job of describing why it was necessary for Reed to put an end to this practice when he became Speaker. He offers multiple examples of dilatory chicanery that make today’s delaying tactics look like a junior-high version of the four-corner offense.

Reed, a serious legislator who often operated in a comic vein — more than a century after his death he is still considered one of the wittiest people ever to lead the House — had seen enough of such nonsense. So he devised a system that ensured any warm bodies on the House floor were counted as present, even if they refused to answer a quorum call. That ended the filibuster and earned the Speaker the title of Czar Reed, a label he didn’t seem to mind at all.

Reed did not earn the sort of lasting reputation that some other Speakers have. He is not revered like Henry Clay, and he does not have a House office building named after him like Joseph Cannon, Nicholas Longworth or Sam Rayburn. If he is remembered at all, it is for some of his “eviscerating wit.” Sarcasm was his “native language,” Grant observes, a condition that undoubtedly played a role in keeping Reed from being more of a party favorite than he was and also might have had a part in keeping him out of the White House.

Grant is a financial writer and his proclivity for monetary policy shines through in “Mr. Speaker!” just as it did in his other political biography, “John Adams: Party of One.” “Mr. Speaker!” is a useful primer on Gilded Age monetary policy — so much so that in some parts of the book, Reed disappears for pages at a time while Grant expounds on the gold standard, silver monetization and tariffs.

It’s not a tight narrative, but episodic, at least as much “times” as “life.”

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