As the Supreme Court mulls the first direct challenge to its 2010 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission ruling, reform advocates have lobbied the court to revisit and fully debate the constitutionality of corporate political spending.
But it’s a risky strategy. If the court decides to take up and argue the challenge in question, which involves a Montana corporate spending ban, it’s anyone’s guess where it will come down.
The justices could reverse course from Citizens United and embrace new political money restrictions, as reformers argue they should. But the high court also could opt to deregulate the system further, law professor Richard Hasen said. That would leave Citizens United opponents worse off than they are today.
For example, the court might decide to throw out one of the few remaining rules on the books, such as the existing limits on contributions to parties and candidates.
“You’ve got people in the campaign finance reform community pushing for a hearing, as though that’s likely to get the court to reconsider Citizens United,” said Hasen, a professor of law and politics at the University of California-Irvine. “Not only do I think that’s a long shot — because I don’t see any evidence that the court majority has changed its position on this — I also think it could make things worse.”
None of that has stopped Members of Congress, attorneys general, activist groups and legal scholars from urging the high court to take up the Montana case, which is known as American Tradition Partnership v. Bullock. The high court signaled this week that it would meet in private conference on June 14 to decide how to proceed in the case, which turns on a constitutional challenge to a 100-year-old Montana corporate spending ban.
The Citizens United ruling, which ended decades-old limits on direct corporate and union spending, technically nullified the Montana law. But the state refused to take its corporate spending ban off the books. A trio of corporations then challenged the ban as unconstitutional, but in December the state Supreme Court sided with Montana and upheld the law.
The Supreme Court stayed that ruling in February. The high court will now decide as early as June 15-18 whether to summarily reject the state Supreme Court’s ruling, as the corporations challenging the law have requested. The court could also refuse to take up the case, leaving the Montana law in place — an outcome few expect. The court’s other option is to take up the case for full argument and briefing.
More than a dozen amicus briefs have flooded the court in the Montana case, increasing the likelihood that the justices will opt for a full rehearing, Hasen said. Those filing briefs include Sens. John McCain (R-Ariz.) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.), who teamed up to urge the court either to let the Montana law stand or to fully revisit the corporate spending questions raised in Citizens United.
Vice President Joe Biden waits to conduct a mock swearing-in ceremony with Sen. Brian Schatz, D-Hawaii, in the Capitol's Old Senate Chamber, December 2, 2014. Schatz was sworn in to serve the remainder of his term since he was appointed to the seat after Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, passed away.