War, more than any other historic phenomena, has shaped the contours of the modern world. Over the past few centuries, armed hostilities between nations have forced leaders to redraw borders, forfeit their sovereignty and take hundreds of millions of lives in the process.
But what about the wars that were averted or mitigated through diplomacy the many conflicts that were resolved through shrewd negotiation instead of military force?
Words, as much as weapons, shape history, posits author Fredrik Stanton in his new book, Great Negotiations: Agreements That Changed the Modern World, which chronicles eight of the most epic parleys ever to have transpired.
The traditional way of looking at history is through the lens of either biography or war, Stanton said in an interview. One of the things this book does is fill in a missing piece of that equation.
From the harrowing tale of how Benjamin Franklin managed to cajole France into publicly supporting the American Revolution to a white-knuckle account of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Stanton deftly illustrates that the power of haggling can easily rival that of any army or warhead.
His work represents a welcome addition to life in an increasingly multipolar world. Indeed, just last week Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton likened the nuclear showdown with Iran to the Cuban Missile Crisis, calling negotiations high-stakes diplomacy akin to the kind President John F. Kennedy found himself facing in 1962.
Many of the situations Stanton writes about seemed hopeless at first, where the strategic forces aligned against each other were so evenly balanced that negotiations hinged on the psychology of the individuals seated around the table.
You can learn from them on a tactical level. You can learn tricks that they used and you realize, of course, that amazing things are possible in negotiations under the right circumstances, Stanton said.
For example, the Continental Army was on its last legs when George Washington dispatched Franklin to plead with France for weapons and supplies. Without them, the war would surely be lost, yet France was reluctant to provide anything more than tacit support in the form of covert arms shipments.
A monarchy itself, France was skittish about publicly supporting the colonists revolution against King George III. But it also stood to benefit immensely from an American victory over its historic enemy both through Britains defeat and a lucrative trading relationship with a resource-rich continent. But France refused to be drawn into a public alliance with the Americans lest it lead to war with Britain.
In a flash of diplomatic subterfuge, Franklin entered into faux peace negotiations with Paul Wentworth, his British counterpart. But Franklin never intended to settle for anything less than outright independence; as Stanton writes, Franklins purpose, of course, was not to engage Wentworth in a meaningful discussion on the substance of his proposals, but to keep him occupied in conversation long enough to generate a convincing impression of entertaining his offer.
Several days later, the Franco-American treaties were signed, and Frances assistance proved instrumental in turning the tide of the war, even though its support cost the French treasury over a billion livres (equal to three times of Frances national budget), drove the country deep into debt, and led to taxes that provoked the French Revolution in 1789).
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